JAKARTA (TheInsiderStories) – The Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI) released the results on mapping issues and strategic politics, economics, socio-culture, and security ahead of the 2019 Election.
The institution has conducted an expert survey in the April-July 2018 period relating to democracy in Indonesia. This survey involved academics, activists, journalists, and community leaders.
In the political sector, the agency found three key issues concerning the government and political elites, namely civil liberties, voting behavior, and voter participation. Voting behavior is predicted to be influenced by the tendency of millennial group choices, consideration of religious representation, and the influence of religiosity in the political perspective of voters.
One important finding in the political sphere ahead of the simultaneous elections in 2019 is that the citizen’s rights to vote and be elected is good, but participation in formulation and supervision of policies is still considered bad.
Respondents also considered not only political problems that need to be addressed, but the current socio-cultural problems that also need to be observed. This can be seen from the attitude of respondents who assess tolerance in the community as still lacking.
According to expert respondents, this could be triggered by the rampant spread of hoax news. Increased society assessment of actual political conditions also relates to media literacy and citizen political education, especially in addressing issues that have been politicized by the political elites, such as news that cannot be substantiated.
Therefore this survey is a matter of consideration in the formulation of policies to encourage the consolidation of democracy in Indonesia, especially in the contesting of democracy in 2019.
In the economic sector, the research concluded that the public appreciated the government’s performance in infrastructure development and improvement of health and education services. The public does however consider that the government still needs to try to create long-term economic justice.
Improvements in access to basic needs such as housing, the stability of prices of commodities, the provision of clean water, public transportation, and the quality of education, must remain a focus for the government.
From the research, it is stated that public access to basic needs (food access, education and health) now is good. However, it’s still noteworthy that people’s access to housing is still considered poor.
In relation to people’s purchasing power, on the one hand, 83.45 percent of experts stated that the availability of goods was good and very good and 57.93 percent stated that current inflation was good and very good. On the other hand, 55.17 percent of experts assessed income levels the community is still bad and very bad, while 53.80 percent of experts rate price disparity between regions is still poor.
The assessment of the government’s performance regarding infrastructure development is relatively positive, especially in the construction of airports and ports, where 90 percent of experts have judged good and very good.
However, a poor assessment was given by 51 percent of experts on the construction of clean water infrastructure. Other problems related to government performance in the industrial sector include absorption and capacity of workers in the field of industry and foreign economic activities including exports, imports and foreign debt.
In the security area, research shows that the public considers the government’s performance in the security sector to generally improve. Policies in the security sector include law enforcement, human rights protection, and eradicating corruption. However, Joko Widodo and Jusuf Kalla’s commitment in resolving human rights violations in the past is considered to be an unfinished homework.
In the socio-cultural, the politicization of the issue of ethnicity, religion, race and class and hoaxes are still an important problem that needs addressing. These two problems can lead to intolerance and anxiety in the civil society if the escalation continues to grow.
Regarding the implementation of elections, respondents gave a positive assessment of the performance of the General Election Commission (around 85 percent of experts expressed good and very good).
Then for the Indonesian Election Supervisory Watch (around 71 percent of experts stated good/very good). However, experts said there were several problems that could potentially arise in 2019, including: money politics (89 percent), election outcome disputes (76.6 percent), bureaucratic neutrality (66.2 percent), abstentions rights (53.1 percent), intimidation in elections (46.2 percent), and use of election violence (32.4 percent).
In the security and defense sector, experts assess the condition of defense in Indonesia as good and effective in overcoming threats (stated by 64.1 percent of experts). It’s just that there are still a number of threats, both military and non-military, which experts consider to have high potential to emerge.
The highest threat is transnational crime (88 percent), terrorism (79 percent), and the spread of non-Pancasila ideology (70 percent). While the potential for threats such as armed separatists, border disputes and war has a value below 50 percent.
Related to legal and security issues, experts assess that drug trafficking (97.2 percent) and corruption (95.9 percent) are two things that are considered to have the highest urgency in being addressed immediately.
In the aspect of law enforcement in Indonesia, more than 66 percent of experts give a bad assessment of equality before the law and the consistency of law enforcement.
About the number of voters, based on the survey, there were around 35 percent to 40 percent voters in 2019 election dominated by the millennial generation. Or the number is around 80 million from 185 million voters.
This millennial turnout is an important capital for politicians in the 2019 election. Moreover, there is a tendency for rational millennial voters and a conscious willingness to elect a President who is truly capable to lead the nation.
But the Alvara Research Center survey in October, saw the Indonesian Muslim millennial political choice split into two sides. Millennials that are nationalist-oriented Muslims tend to choose Joko Widodo – Ma’ruf Amin (55.56 percent), while millennial Muslims who are religiously-oriented choose Prabowo Subianto -Sandiaga Uno (33.92 percent).
It means, Widodo – Amin is superior among millennial Muslim nationalist voters. These shows that the majority of Indonesian millennials still show their partiality towards the state system based on Pancasila and the 1945-Constitution.
Written by Daniel Deha, Email: firstname.lastname@example.org